There are a lot more domain record terms than this, but these are the ones I most frequently encounter. I’ll add more as I run into them.
||Point a domain to a specific IP address
||Canonical Name Record
||This is an alias of one name to another. Example: A CNAME of www.cagrimmett.com to cagrimmett.com tells the server to look for the WWW version wherever the non-WWW version’s A record resides. CNAME records must always point to another domain name, never directly to an IP address.
||Mail Exchange Record
||Direct’s a domain’s email to the server hosting the accounts. I most frequently use this for setting up Google Apps.
||Name Server Record
||Determines which servers will communicate DNS info for a domain. You usually have a primary and secondary. This site uses Cloudflare’s name servers.
||DNS Key Record
||The key record used in DNSSEC.
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||Domain Name System
||Basically a phone book for the web. When you try to go to a domain (e.g. google.com) in your browser, the domain name system tells your browser where to find that domain, usually an IP address.
||Time To Live
||How long it will take any change you make now to go into effect
||You don’t use the actual domain name in your DNS settings. Instead, you use the @ symbol to indicate the domain name.
||Domain Name System Security Extensions
||A set of protocols that add a layer of security to the DNS lookup and exchange processes.